The Most Shocking Ending in All Literature

“How oddly situated a man is apt to find himself at the age of thirty-eight! His youth belongs to the distant past. Yet the period of memory beginning with the end of youth and extending to the present has left him not a single vivid impression. And therefore he persists in feeling that nothing more than a fragile barrier separates him from his youth. He is forever hearing with the utmost clarity the sounds of this neighboring domain, but there is no way to penetrate the barrier.”
–Yukio  Mishima

A Biography of Author Yukio Mishima

Three times nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature, Yukio Mishima is considered the most important Japanese novelist of the twentieth century, and until the arrival in more recent times of Murakami Haruki and Yoshimoto Banana, was the writer with the largest readership outside Japan.

Extremely prolific despite a comparatively short life, he produced forty novels, at least twenty books of essays, poetry, eighteen plays—including modern Kabuki and Noh dramas, some of which he also acted in—and one libretto. He was an astute critic—his talent rated higher by some than his fiction—and appeared in four films as an actor of some ability, one of which he also directed and produced. Mishima was considered to be the only author of his time talented enough to write Kabuki plays in the traditional manner; a professor from Kyoto University described him as a man of “frightening talent.”

Born Kimitaké Hiraoka, he was seized from his parents and raised by his Grandmother, the only one of the family of samurai descent, who both instilled in her grandson a love of literature, and according to some biographers, sickness and neuroses. Many trace his literary themes and later actions to these early, difficult beginnings.

At sixteen he assumed the pen name Yukio Mishima, a move alternatively explained as hiding his writing from an anti-literary father and hiding his true age. Yukio comes from the word yuki, which means snow, and Mishima is a town known for its view of the snowy peaks of Mt. Fuji.

Mishima avoided being conscripted by the army during World War II after being falsely diagnosed with pleurisy. While a student of law at Tokyo Imperial University he published his first collection of short stories, and the following year in 1944 published his first major work, The Forest in Full Bloom, a great achievement for any Japanese writer as few books were being published during the war. The first edition of 4000 copies sold out within a week.

All of his novels contain paradoxes: beauty contrasted with violence and death; the yearning for love and its rejection when offered; the dichotomy between traditional Japanese values and the spiritual barrenness of contemporary life; paradoxes he himself embodied—his writing was in all cases semi-autobigraphical, sometimes fully.

Mishima’s best known works include the autobiographical Confessions of a Mask, The Temple of the Golden Pavilion and the tetralogy The Sea of Fertility, regarded by many as his most lasting achievement—he sent the final volume to his publisher on the day of his suicide.

At the end of The Decay of the Angel, the last volume of The Sea of Fertility, Mishima turned the entire series upside down, a single, blinding burst of prose undermining the very foundation of all that has gone before, a stunning plot-twist that the author pulled off brilliantly. Some reviewers suggest that committing seppuku immediately following writing such a passage is understandable—how could one continue living after writing something so brilliant?

The ending to The Decay of the Angel has been called possibly the most shocking ending in all of literature; it was followed by one of the most shocking endings of all real life—an author who vehemently didn’t want grow old or decline bowed out at the very top of his game, aged 45; following an elaborately planned yet guaranteed to fail coup attempt aimed at restoring traditional values to a Japanese society he deigned bereft of them, he committed ritual suicide, 25 November 1970.

“The whole of Japan was under a curse. Everyone ran after money. The old spiritual tradition had vanished: materialism was the order of the day. Modern Japan is ugly.”

Toshiro Mayuzumi, close friend of Mishima’s for twenty years, explained: “He was a man of action. His suicide death was an attempt to change the world, at least to spur it by alerting the sensible population to the inconsistencies surrounding postwar Japan, the Constitution, the Self-Defense Forces, education, moral decay.”

Friend, former follower and fellow novelist Yasunari Kawabata honored Mishima with the statement “a writer of [Mishima’s] calibre appears only once every 200 to 300 years.” Ironically Kawabata won the Nobel Prize for Literature two years earlier in 1968, the first Japanese to receive an award long expected to be Mishima’s.

His funeral was attended by 10,000, the largest of its kind ever held in Japan, and his commentary on the Hagakure—the moral code taught to samurai—immediately became a best-seller.

Mishima wrote in his diary “All I desire is beauty.” A dedicated body-builder, practitioner of karate and kendo master, he sought throughout his life to make himself more beautiful, and strong. He saw beauty as a form of purity which could also be realised through noble action, and death.

“If we value so highly the dignity of life, how can we not also value the dignity of death? No death may be called futile.”

Video of Yukio Mishima conducting the Yomiuri Nippon Symphony Orchestra

Recommended books about Yukio Mishima

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  • Joseph
    Posted at 11:42h, 14 September

    I read “Confessions of a Mask” about six years ago. I did not understand it entirely at the time. I was very naive. Except that I knew it was semi-autobiographical.

    I scoured the Internet for information about Mishima before and that time so little could be found on the author.

    What you wrote is a nice overview of Mishima’s character. Makes me want to re-read “Confessions…” and his other titiles such as “Forbidden Colors” (which I’ve been meaning to read) and “The Decay of the Angel”.

    Josephs last blog post..Masterplan

  • Jaitra Gillespie
    Posted at 13:12h, 14 September

    Thanks for the comment Joseph. Yes, Confessions of a Mask is quite a book, although I am not sure whether I would exactly recommend it. It’s one of those works like Ulysses or anything by Proust where greatness and reputation isn’t quite the same thing as an easy read. And one has to wonder whether Mishima made up just a little of this famed, career-launching autobiographical work, tempted perhaps to exaggeration or even imagination by his burning need for fame and recognition.

    I very much wish I could read Mishima in his original Japanese, where every word is said to precisely and elegantly ordered. I have yet to find an English translation that comes close to reproducing the quality of this “master stylist of the Japanese language.”

    Yes, readily accessible resources on Mishima are very few and far between. I will add a couple of books I have found worthwhile to the bottom of this post.

    Paul Schrader’s movie Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters is also very good, although I find actor Ken Ogata to be a strange choice as Mishima—all sword but not a sliver of chrysanthemum.

    I’ve also added a video I found recently of Mishima conducting a symphony orchestra, with a brief interview in Japanese beforehand. To me he is, despite his fame and acclaim, intensely uncomfortable in his own skin, and appears somewhat akin to small, lost and scared child trapped inside a very famous adult body. Were I a psychologist I would probably claim this fear and fragility as an explanation for much of Mishima’s actions. His friend and translator Donald Keene certainly did.

    Jaitra Gillespies last blog post..The Most Shocking Ending in All Literature

  • James
    Posted at 14:36h, 18 September

    Hi, I found your blog on this new directory of WordPress Blogs at I dont know how your blog came up, must have been a typo, i duno. Anyways, I just clicked it and here I am. Your blog looks good. Have a nice day. James.

  • Jaitra Gillespie
    Posted at 21:11h, 18 September

    Hi James, I’m well impressed that you found me at the “World’s Largest List of WordPress Blogs,” where 64,724 WordPress blogs are apparently indexed. Which says something about either the profile of this blog, or your own persistence, I can’t be sure of which!

    Jaitra Gillespies last blog post..The Most Shocking Ending in All Literature

  • kurye
    Posted at 13:52h, 01 September

    great article thank you

  • The Envoy
    Posted at 02:39h, 03 September

    I first read Mishima’s Sword: Travels in Search of a Samurai Legend by Christopher Ross in 2006. I had never read anything like it. And since then, I have been reading parts of it to understand.

  • Jaitra
    Posted at 10:14h, 04 September

    Mishima’s Sword is an excellent book, not only informative but an entertaining read in its own right, and full of information on Mishima that many other sources omit—it is for example where I first found Mishima’s jisei or death poem.

  • ashok
    Posted at 10:49h, 12 July

    Have bookmarked this post – I had heard of Mishima, but didn’t really look him up and learn more about him. This was most enlightening to read: thank you so much!

  • Ayu Winastri
    Posted at 20:57h, 30 March

    My favorite is The Temple of the Golden Pavilion.
    Mishima was very discipline. Good example for underdog writer like me.

  • wiersze,pokezja,poeta
    Posted at 18:04h, 31 October

    I’ve learn a few excellent stuff here. Certainly value bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how much effort you put to create one of these fantastic informative website.

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