Mono no aware: Beauty in Japan

54/167

Meaning literally “a sensitivity to things,” mono no aware is a concept coined by Japanese literary and linguistic scholar Motoori Norinaga in the eighteenth century to describe the essence of Japanese culture, and it remains the central artistic imperative in Japan to this day. The phrase is derived from the word aware, which in Heian Japan meant sensitivity or sadness, and the word mono, meaning things, and describes beauty as an awareness of the transience of all things, and a gentle sadness at their passing. It can also be translated as the “ah-ness” of things, life and love.

Mono no aware
gave name to an aesthetic that already existed in Japanese art, music and poetry, the source of which can be traced directly to the introduction of Zen Buddhism in the twelfth century, a spiritual philosophy and practise which profoundly influenced all aspects of Japanese culture, but especially art and religion. The fleeting nature of beauty described by mono no aware derives from the three states of existence in Buddhist philosophy: unsatisfactoriness, impersonality, and most importantly in this context, impermanence.

According to mono no aware, a falling or wilting autumn flower is more beautiful than one in full bloom; a fading sound more beautiful than one clearly heard. The sakura or cherry blossom tree is the epitome of this conception of beauty; the flowers of the most famous variety, somei yoshino, nearly pure white tinged with a subtle pale pink, bloom and then fall within a single week. The subject of a thousand poems and a national icon, the cherry blossom tree embodies for Japan beauty as a transient experience.

Mono no aware states that beauty is a subjective rather than objective experience, a state of being ultimately internal rather than external. Based largely upon classical Greek ideals, beauty in the West is sought in the ultimate perfection of an external object: a sublime painting, perfect sculpture or intricate musical composition; a beauty that could be said to be only skin deep. The Japanese ideal sees beauty instead as an experience of the heart and soul, a feeling for and appreciation of objects or artwork—most commonly nature or the depiction of—in a pristine, untouched state.

An appreciation of beauty as a state which does not last and cannot be grasped is not the same as nihilism, and can better be understood in relation to Zen Buddhism’s philosophy of earthly transcendence: a spiritual longing for that which is infinite and eternal—the ultimate source of all worldly beauty. As the monk Sotoba wrote in Zenrin Kushu (Poetry of the Zenrin Temple), Zen does not regard nothingness as a state of absence, but rather the affirmation of that which is unseen, existing behind empty space: “Everything exists in emptiness: flowers, the moon in the sky, beautiful scenery.”

With its roots in Zen Buddhism, mono no aware bears some relation to the non-dualism of Indian philosophy, as related in the following story about Swami Vivekananda by Sri Chinmoy:

“Beauty,” says [Vivekananda], “is not external, but already in the mind.” Here we are reminded of what his spiritual daughter Nivedita wrote about her Master. “It was dark when we approached Sicily, and against the sunset sky, Etna was in slight eruption. As we entered the straits of Messina, the moon rose, and I walked up and down the deck beside the Swami, while he dwelt on the fact that beauty is not external, but already in the mind. On one side frowned the dark crags of the Italian coast, on the other, the island was touched with silver light. ‘Messina must thank me,’ he said; ‘it is I who give her all her beauty.’” Truly, in the absence of appreciation, beauty is not beauty at all. And beauty is worthy of its name only when it has been appreciated.

Excerpt from Vivekananda: An Ancient Silence-Heart And A Modern Dynamism-Life by Sri Chinmoy.

The founder of mono no aware, Motoori Norinaga (1730-1801), was the pre-eminent scholar of the Kokugakushu movement, a nationalist movement which sought to remove all outside influences from Japanese culture. Kokugakushu was enormously influential in art, poetry, music and philosophy, and responsible for the revival during the Tokugawa period of the Shinto religion. Contradictorily, the influence of Buddhist ideas and practises upon art and even Shintoism itself was so great that, although Buddhism is technically an outside influence, it was by this point unable to be extricated.

  1. Aug 27, 2008 3:27 am

    Excelente Post. Congratulations!!!
    I love this theme and the way that you talk about it!
    Thank you for sharing!

    ;O)

  2. Oct 21, 2010 5:37 am

    respect for you passion.

    …it’s only that you kind of loosely mix together lots of other Japanese “principles”, wabi-sabi and shibusa for instance.

    don’t.

  3. Jul 19, 2011 7:59 am

    […] To read more about mono no aware: http://sensitivitytothings.com/2008/07/25/mono-no-aware-beauty-in-japan/ […]

  4. Jul 29, 2011 12:14 pm

    […]   These spiritual roots created the aesthetic sense called Kokugaku, and the philosophy of “mono no aware“, sometimes translated as “the pathos of things“.   This is broadly translated […]

  5. Dec 15, 2011 6:34 am

    […] scattered shards. These broken knick-knacks, mostly cast in the forms of cats and birds, are a mono no aware tableau of interdependence and impermanence. A delicate […]

  6. Mar 22, 2012 3:17 pm

    […] Why do I love Taniguchi’s manga so much? Is it the contradiction, the frisson, between the perfection of his diagrammatic art and the repressed but percolating emotions of the characters that inhabit his settings? At the end of A Zoo in Winter (2008/2011), the young couple—one of whom is an autobiographical stand-in for Taniguchi himself—read the manga they’ve written together, while sitting in a cozy spot at the hospital that provides an extraordinary view of the nearby village. They’re swathed in beauty, but this beauty—like all beauty—will pass. They both know the girl is going to die, and they know they’ll never consummate their love, yet they smile, in a perfect exhibition of mono no aware. […]

  7. Jun 21, 2012 5:07 am

    This is a great description and analysis. I’m redoing my website and would like to include a link to this page – is that ok with you?

    many thanks

    ian

    • Jun 25, 2012 7:24 am

      @Ian Clark

      Of course Ian, by all means, it would be an honour to be linked to! Thanks.

  8. Aug 4, 2012 4:35 pm

    […] and all you could do is to give a wistful smile and sigh with every passing… then move on. Mono No Aware. Memento Mori. I practically learned my limits and the limits of this world- things I can and […]

  9. Aug 14, 2012 3:25 am

    Here is my website – the link is on every page. http://www.ianclarkphotography.co.uk

    Ian

    • Aug 14, 2012 3:52 am

      @Ian

      Wow Ian, thanks, and nice photos!

  10. Jan 15, 2015 10:45 am

    Beautiful!
    However, I believe I disagree with Sri Chinmoy: Beauty doesn’t owe me anything. I owe my happiness to Her.

    Thank you.

  11. Mar 3, 2015 5:55 am

    […] According to mono no aware, a falling or wilting autumn flower is more beautiful than one in full bloom; a fading sound more beautiful than one clearly heard. The sakura or cherry blossom tree is the epitome of this conception of beauty; the flowers of the most famous variety, somei yoshino, nearly pure white tinged with a subtle pale pink, bloom and then fall within a single week. The subject of a thousand poems and a national icon, the cherry blossom tree embodies for Japan beauty as a transient experience. (Source) […]

Write Comment...

Name

Email